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ISSN Digital 1989-9246  -  ISSN Impresa 2171-2069 

cons cul edu-cor-neg

Vol. 5, nº 1, January 2014

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55-70 55-70

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Capacidad predictiva de la erotofilia y variables sociodemográficas sobre el debut sexual [Predictive power of the erotophilia and sociodemographic variables on the sexual debut]

Mª Paz Bermúdez, Tamara Ramiro-Sánchez y Mª Teresa Ramiro

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare the predictive ability of erotophilia and socio-demographic variables (i.e., sex, age, religion, school shift (morning/afternoon), sexual orientation, socio-economic status and family structure) with regard to participants’ sexual experience or lack of it and age of sexual debut in an adolescent sample. The sample was composed of 1,503 Colombian adolescents (45% females) aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.95; SD = 1.46). The Spanish adaptation of the Sexual Opinion Survey to assess participants’ level of erotophilia was applied. Results suggested that, after age, erotophilia is the second best predictor of having sexual intercourse. Yet, erotophilia was not found to predict age of sexual debut, which was influenced by sex, age and sexual orientation instead. We concluded that erotophilia is a construct that differentiates adolescents who have sexual relations from those who have decided not to have them yet.

Keywords: erotophilia; adolescents; sexual experience; sexual debut; socio-demographic.

1-21 1-21

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La atención y el sacádico: Efectos clínicos en el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) [Attention and saccadic: Clinical effects in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)]

Trinidad García, Celestino Rodríguez, Paloma González-Castro, Luis Álvarez y Marisol Cueli

Abstract

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood disorder, which is associated to response inhibition deficits. The main aim of this study is to analyze the eye saccadic movements as a measure of inhibitory control in ADHD, using Fixation and Antisaccade tasks. 4 children and adolescents took part in the study (2 ADHD and 2 controls), aged 7 and 16. Eye movements’ assessment was completed by the administration of response inhibition and attention deficit measures. Main results indicated: a) ADHD group showed a significant higher number of mistakes in saccadic tasks (intrusive saccadic in the Fixation task and direction mistakes in the Antisaccade task); b) the 16 years old participant with ADHD showed less mistakes than the 7 years old children. Additionally, and in contrast to this second participant, he was able to correct practically all of them; c) high coherence between saccadic tasks and response inhibition and attention deficit was found, where high levels of saccadic movements´ mistakes were related to low attention and high impulsivity levels. These results highlight about the validity and usefulness of the saccadic eye movements as a measure of the inhibitory deficit in ADHD.

Keywords: saccadic eye movements; ADHD; fixation; antisaccadic, inhibitory deficit.

39-53 39-53

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Sleep Apnea through journal articles included in the Web of Science in the first decade of the 21st Century

Raúl Quevedo-Blasco, Izabela Zych and Gualberto Buela-Casal

Abstract

Sleep Apnea is characterized by cessation (apnea) or semi-cessation of breathing (hipopnea) while asleep. The most important effect of Sleep Apnea is the daily somnolence which is one of the most important causes of traffic accidents. Thus, it is crucial to conduct research on the topic to analyze different parameters, such as where it is conducted, who are the most productive scientists, in which journals it is published, and whether the number of studies on the subject is rising. The purpose of the current study was to analyze these parameters on the Web of Science in the first decade of the 21st Century. It was found that the number of studies on the topic is increasing; the countries with the highest number of studies were the USA, Germany and Canada. The most productive authors were David Gozal (USA), T. Douglas Bradley (Canada) y Patrick Levy (France). The journals with the highest number of articles were Sleep, Chest and American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Keywords: descriptive study; sleep apnea; Web of Science; articles; indicators.

23-38 23-38

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Mnemotecnia de la palabra clave con dibujos y juicios metanemónicos de personas mayores [The keyword mnemonic reinforced with drawings and metamnemonic judgments in the elderly]

Alfredo Campos y Leticia Ameijide

Abstract

This study consisted of two experiments designed to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic technique reinforced with drawings in comparison to the learner´s own learning strategies on recall and the following metamnemonic judgments: ease of learning (EOL), judgments of learning (JOL), and confidence level (CL) using a short word list i.e., 16 Latin words (Experiment 1), or a long word list, 32 Latin words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 involving 100 women, mean age 75.08 years, the keyword method reinforced with drawings was found to be more efficacious than the learner´s own learning strategies on recall and metamnemonic judgments. In Experiment 2 involving 100 women, mean age 74.72 years, the keyword method reinforced with drawings was more efficacious on recall and all of the metamnemonic judgments under study. In conclusion, the keyword mnemonic reinforced with drawings is effective in the elderly. Further studies are required to examine if these results can be replicated in participants of other ages, and for both genders.

Keywords: metamnemonic judgments; keywords; recall; elderly, drawings.

71-104 71-104

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Elaboración y validación de una escala para la evaluación del acoso escolar [Development and validation of a scale to assess bullying]

Ramón Arce, Judith Velasco, Mercedes Novo y Francisca Fariña

Abstract

A study was designed to develop a scale for assessing bullying at school among adolescents. A list of 39 items was drawn up in which the wording of each item conformed to three criteria: the content of the items entailed intentionality of action; the word bullying was not used; and no reference was made to any specific scenario. The list was applied together with the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002), the ACS scales (Frydenberg & Lewis, 2000), and the TAMAI (Hernández, 2002) to evaluate mental health, coping, and adaptation in 308 adolescents, 52.7% girls aged 12 to 17 years (M = 13.97; SD = 0.06), attending compulsory secondary education (CSE). The results generated a scale consisting of 26 items and 4 factors (psychological bullying, exclusion, physical bullying, and relational bullying) that was reliable for the entire scale, α = .95, and for the 4 factors, αs was .84 to .90, and valid (convergent and discriminant in criterion and construct).

Keywords: school bullying; scale; reliability; validity; psychological injury.

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