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ISSN Digital 1989-9246  -  ISSN Impresa 2171-2069 

cons cul edu-cor-neg

Vol. 3, nº 1, enero 2012

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75-87 75-87

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Date added: 01/01/2012
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El papel de los centros escolares en la adquisición de la competencia científica


Elsa Peña-Suárez, Ángela Campillo-Álvarez, Marta Santarén-Rosell y José Muñiz


Abstract: The school effects are defined as the influence of educational centers on the pupils’ results. School effect size is the percentage of explained variance, which depends on school characteristics. This paper estimates the school size in Scientific Competence, which is evaluated by PISA program. The research establishes several objectives. It aims to estimate the magnitude school effects in the attitudes and capacities and to compare different types of school effects: A gross school effect, which doesn’t control context effects and a net school effect, which is adjusted by the school and families socioeconomic status. The sample consists of 17528 Spanish students, whose average age was 15.84 years (SD = 029), and 612 centers. Different multilevel models were developed: Students (level one) and schools (level two). The statistic applied was the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. The results show greater effects in the assessed capacities, over 15%. This percentage was reduced by the net school effect, because the socioeconomic status is a great predictor of students’ performance. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that schools in Spain are relevant in acquisition of Scientific Competence.


Keywords: school effects; PISA; multilevel models; scientific competence; Spain.



55-73 55-73

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Date modified: 12/23/2013
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Diferencias de género en actitudes hacia las matemáticas en la enseñanza obligatoria


Julio Antonio González-Pienda, Marisol Fernández-Cueli, Trinidad García, Natalia Suárez, Estrella Fernández, Elián Tuero-Herrero y Elza Helena da Silva


Abstract: The study of attitudes and their role in mathematics learning have been an interesting issue for researchers for over 50 years, being gender differences one of the most discussed topic. The present work examines gender differences in attitudes towards mathematics in the course of the last eight grades of compulsory education, based on the response of 5926 Spanish and Brazilian students to the Attitudes toward Mathematics Inventory (AMI). The results show, in both samples of students, a statistically significant effect of the gender on the different dimensions of the AMI. Furthermore, results also show that such effects are strongly mediated by the course. Finally, results are discussed in relation with the implementation of new technologies for the study of mathematics such as the interactive white boards and their effects in the control of the negative attitudes toward mathematics.


Keywords: attitudes; mathematics; compulsory education; gender; students; course.



39-54 39-54

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Consumo de drogas y conducta delictiva: análisis diferencial de la heroína y la cocaína en la trayectoria infractora


Carolina Bringas, Luis Rodríguez, Javier López-Cepero, Francisco Javier Rodríguez y Cristina Estrada


Abstract: With the aim of knowing the effects of the psychoactive substance abuse in criminal carrier, a study was designed. For this, 157 prison inmates at the Villabona (Asturias, Spain) jail were registered in the age of his/her first antisocial behaviour i.e. non-sanctioned, first delinquent behaviour and first entrance into prison, as well as the drug abuse. The sample consisted mainly of males (94.9%) with ages ranging from 19 to 19 years, mean age is 30.71 (SE = 0.594), 68 primary offenders and 89 recidivists. Results showed that recidivist offender which were drug abusers committed his/her first antisocial and delinquent behaviour and entered first time into prison at younger age than the primary offenders. These findings open new research lines on the relevance of drug abuse and the recidivism in antisocial and delinquent behaviour. The implications of these results for intervention are discussed.


Keywords: Crime; recidivism; drug; delinquency; age.



19-37 19-37

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Date modified: 01/07/2014
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Un estudio de campo sobre el envejecimiento activo en función de la actividad física y ejercicio físico


María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes, José Jesús Gázquez, María del Mar Molero e Isabel Mercader


Abstract: There is a growing conviction that physical activity and physical exercise, as components of an activity life-style, help preventing illness and improving state of mind. For that reason, this project aims to know to what extent old people play physical exercise (e.g., walking, doing keep-fit, dancing, etc.) and physical activities (e.g., doing the ironing, going shopping) regularly. Results are evaluated according to gender, marital status, and age measures. Descriptive study is carried out. A total of 1222 people of the province of Almeria (Spain), aged more than 60 years, participate in the investigation. Results show that elderly usually play with physical exercise, are men and married people. Physical activities are often acted by women and divorced/separated people. Regarding to age, the daily exercise and physical activity were the modal answers of the elderlies between 60 and 84 years, whereas the non-performance was the most registered answer in elderlies from 85 years. After this period of time, the practice of exercise and physical activity decreases drastically. Therefore, it would be advisable to highlight that physical activity programs must be adapted to the special features and needs of old people, especially among people with 85 years old and over.


Keywords: elderly; physical activity; physical exercise; active aging; healthy aging.


 

 

1-18 1-18

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Effects of aromatase inhibition on spatial working memory and hippocampal astrocyte numbers


Nélida M. Conejo, Héctor González-Pardo, José I. Arias and Jorge L. Arias


Abstract: Sex hormones are known to induce the sexual differentiation of the brain during early development in mammals. Testosterone secreted by males already during gestation is classically believed to contribute to brain and behavioural sexual differentiation thanks to its conversion to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. However, there is evidence suggesting that aromatase inhibition may also impair cognitive functions in women receiving hormonal treatment for breast cancer. In order to evaluate the effects of aromatase on brain and behaviour, male and female prepubescent rats treated with anastrozole prenatally and during early postnatal development were tested in a spatial working memory task. Results show that anastrozole treatment clearly impaired spatial working memory in male and female rats as compared to sex-matched vehicle-treated and control groups. In addition, the number of astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) decreased in the CA3 area of the dorsal hippocampus only in male rats. These results indicate that aromatase plays a complex role on the sexual differentiation of the brain and affects spatial memory in males and females.


Keywords: GFAP-ir; aromatase; anastrozole; hippocampus; stereology; rat.



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